Background to the holy wars and the First Crusade's conquest of Jerusalem, a holy city for Jews, Christians and Muslims.
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For the second year in a row, Japan has crowned a biracial woman the winner of a major beauty pageant, reviving a conversation in the island nation about race, xenophobia and what it means to be Japanese.
Japan is frequently labeled as one of the most homogeneous countries in the world, but some say this is a myth that discounts the minorities living there and stifles dialogue about discrimination in the country.
In May, Japan passed its first anti-hate speech law in an attempt to curb racism and xenophobia. While critics sceptical about the law's effectiveness poked holes in the bill, many have applauded the government for taking steps toward addressing what they say is an often ignored issue.
Some have viewed Priyanka Yoshikawa's Miss World Japan win as a sign the country is becoming more open to diversity. Others argue Japan has been open for a long time, and stories suggesting otherwise are reinforcing antiquated stereotypes. We discuss at 19:30 GMT.
On today's episode, we speak to:
Priyanka Yoshikawa @Miss_priyanka20
Miss World Japan 2016
Baye McNeil @locohama
Author, columnist for The Japan Times
Edward Sumoto @MixedRootsJapan
Founder, Mixed Roots Japan
Debito Arudou @arudoudebito
Author, "Embedded Racism: Japan’s Visible Minorities and Racial Discrimination"
Yuta Aoki @ThatYuta
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